Technical and Business Papers

For more information on any SPE paper, please visit onepetro.org


General Topics

SPE 88530 "Holistic Field Evaluations Improve Prospect" - 2004 | Discusses the use of 'Big Data' to understand key performance indicators and their impact on production as well as reservoir evaluation.

SPE 52219 "Proppant Conductivity: What Counts and Why" - 1999 | Introduces the concept that completion continuity as well as other factors are much more important than merely evaluating a treatment based on proppant conductivity.

SPE 51063 "Desorption Enhancement in Fracture-Stimulated Coalbed Methane Wells" - 1998. Also printed in Journal; of Petroleum Technology - April 1999 | Discusses the surface modification agent (SandWedge) used by Halliburton as its impact on allowing rapid dewatering of coalbed Methane reservoirs. Was rated #1 paper at Eastern Regional in 1999.

SPE 35258 "Economic Ranking of Applications Which Directly Benefit Fracturing Optimization in a Moderate Permeability/Multi-Layered Environment" - 1996 | Focuses on elements of frac design and execution that improve production.

Fracture Engineering Issues – Problem Solving

SPE 163858 "Net Pressure Trends: Is it Permeability, Complexity or just Fluid Response?: A Workflow to Determine Stimulation Effectiveness in naturally Fractured and Matrix-Based Permeability Reservoirs" - 2013 | Illustrates the differences between matrix permeability and natural fractures in net pressure matching. Key to understanding which type of reservoir perm is controlling the frac as well as production.

SPE 145634 "The Case for and Against Using Ball-Drop Multistage Fracturing Systems in Unconventional Horizontal Wells" - 2011 | Title is fairly descriptive of paper; focal point is that the lower the permeability, the greater the need for tighter spacing and at the time that meant using perf-and-plug.

SPE 171548 "Appraising Shale Gas Reservoirs Using Stimulation Data" - 2014 | Using a frac model to understand reservoir properties. (a precursor was 52219)

SPE 171432 "Source Rock Stimulation: Does This Require More Art or Science?" - 2014 | Discussion can almost be regarded as an opinion piece, but this paper does focus on the value of needing to know your reservoir.

SPE 77904 "Calibrating Fracture Models with Direct Diagnostics: A Necessary but Humbling Experience" - 2002 | Using two data streams (Microseismic and/or Tilt with frac pressure data) to create a calibrated model.

SPE 82241 "Conductivity Maintenance: Long-Term Results from the Use of Conductivity Enhancement Material" - 2003 | Illustrates several cases which focus on the need for SandWedge as a conductivity enhancement additive. Some cases are very compelling.

SPE 37406 "Etiology of Multiple Fractures" - 1997 | Discussion on how multiple fractures are actually the norm, and not the exception.

SPE 71648 "Real-Time Fracture Mapping from the 'Live' Treatment Well" - 2001 | Illustrates US Patent 6,935,424 which was using tiltmeters in the actual well being stimulated.

SPE 124843 "Evaluating Stimulation Effectiveness in Unconventional Gas Reservoirs" - 2009 | Presents production evaluation criteria that can be used to compare the overall stimulation effectiveness in unconventional gas reservoirs. Characterizing the 'relative' conductivity of the fracture network and primary fracture are critical to evaluating stimulation performance. Due to the uncertainty in matrix permeability and network fracture spacing (i.e., complexity), it is difficult to find unique solutions when modeling production data in unconventional gas reservoirs.

SPE 133985 "Quantifying the Effects of Well Type and Hydraulic Fracture Selection on Recovery for Various Reservoir Permeability Using a Numerical Reservoir Simulators" - 2010 | The purpose of this paper is to provide a general understanding to support the paradigm shift required for successful exploitation of low-permeability reservoirs.

SPE 134165 "Improving Stimulation Effectiveness, Field Results in the Haynesville Shale" - 2010 | Promotes a continued dialog on best completion practices among operators in this massive shale play. The findings in this paper may also be used by engineers as a guide for moving up the learning curve in other unconventional plays.

SPE 138423 "Evaluating the Production Potential of Hydraulically Fractured Horizontal Completions Using Engineering and Data-Driven Modeling Techniques" - 2010 | Describes a methodology consisting of both engineering and data-driven modeling techniques, which are intended to quantify these effects and the effects of other decisions made related to the construction and completion of hydraulically fractured horizontal wells. A discussion about the merits and drawbacks of the two approaches and why performance of both produces new understanding about completion and frac effectiveness follows. Several Bakken case histories are presented to demonstrate usefulness and document value.

Bone Springs

SPE 170720 "Completion Optimization with Ceramics Provides Step Changes in Horizontal Performance for the 2nd Bone Springs Formation: A Southeastern New Mexico Case History" - 2014 | First paper in series on Bone Springs. Discusses the role if using ceramic proppant in the completion but then introduces the other completion drivers which is followed-up in later papers.

SPE 176528 "Delaware Basin Bone Springs. A Study of the Evolving Completion Practices to Create an Economically Successful Play" - 2015 | Next follow-up to SPE 170720 stating more completion issues which control production along with the use of ceramics.

"The Bone Springs – State of Play Part 1," a CARBO White Paper, 2014

"The Bone Springs – State of Play Part 2," a CARBO White Paper, 2015

Big Data

SPE 181273 "Big Data Yields Completion Optimization: Using Drilling Data to Optimize Completion Efficiency in a Low Permeability Formation" - 2016 | Outlines the process of using drilling data to segment the lateral in a stress and permeability grouping, thus allowing for better frac design and implementation. Method optimizes cluster efficiency plus segments lateral for hydrocarbon type, allowing for a truly engineered solution -0 rather than a 'cookie cutter' approach.

SPE 138277 "Survey of More than 1,000 Fracture Stage Database with Net Pressure in the Barnett Shale, Part 1" - 2010 | First paper in series on use of two data streams to understand key impacts parameters in shale stimulation.

SPE 143330 "Survey of More than 1,000 Fracture Stage Database with Net Pressure in the Barnett Shale, Part 2" - 2011 | Second paper in series on use of two data streams to understand key impacts parameters in shale stimulation.

SPE 163829 "Development of the Brittle Shale Fracture Network Model" - 2013 | Third paper in series that illustrates the data-driven approach to building a frac model for shales. Model is marketed by FRACPRO® as 'NETWORX'.

SPE 166441 "Development of the Brittle Shale Fracture Network Model - Part 2: What is the Value of SRV?" - 2013 | Final paper in series that illustrates the data-driven approach to building a frac model for shales.

"Adding Value with Data Mining," Oil and Gas Investor, January 2011

"Making Unconventional Gas More Conventional," Hart's E&P, April 2005

"Making the Perfect Well," Hart's E&P, August 2004

Case Studies

SPE 29555 "Stimulation Fluid Development and Applied Fracturing Model Improves Results, Morrow Sandstone, Hutchison County, Texas" - 1995 | Describes the use of a very different frac fluid. The fluid used 3% HCl with a small loading of HF as well. Some frac modeling was used; the frac results were very impressive.

SPE 52193 "Investigation of a New Fracturing Fluid and Conductivity Enhancement Technology on Coalbed Methane Production" - 1999 | Discussion on a very successful fluid used in coalbed methane in the late 1990s.

SPE 39958 "Hydraulic Fracturing of the Frontier Zone in West-Central Wyoming, a Case History" - 1998 | Illustrates the use of a low-loading frac fluid crosslinked with zirconium, used to complete several wells in Wyoming. The frac fluid was revolutionary in that the loading was 10-15 lb/1000 gallon lower than the current state-of-art.

SPE 37430 "Continuous-Improvement Stimulation Program Generates Excellent Results in the Morrow Sandstone of the North Texas Panhandle" - 1997 | Describes the evolution of using an aggressive treatment design over 4 wells in the Texas Panhandle. Very impressive results with placement of > 20 lb/gal proppant in zone.

"The Utica – State of Play", a CARBO White Paper, 2014


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